What approved fabrics can I use?
Only polyester/dacron fabrics may be used in this process which meet the requirements and are certified under Technical Standard Order TSO C-15d, dated February 26, 1990 entitled Aircraft Fabric.:
What this simply means-- is that-- you can use Ceconite, Stits, or Superflite, of the weight that is suitable for your application. All aircraft major brand polyester/dacron fabric that is FAA/PMA approved has to meet the TSO C-15d, and the Air-Tech Fabric Covering Process is approved for use on all.
What are some common paint defects?
1. Air Entrapment
Air bubbles, trapped in the coating during the mixing or application, can result in bubbles or crater like defects in the cured paint film.
Cause: Too much agitation or lack of anti-foam agent.
2. Bernard Cells
Bernard Cells are hexagonal cells producted by vortex circulation patterns induced by solvent evaporation in the films.
Cause: Too thick a film: too low a viscosity or too high surface tension.
Bloom is the apppearance on the coated surface of a hazy deposit or oil or wax-like material which mars appearance by lowering gloss or giving a mottled look.
Cause: Mitigation to the surface of an oil, plasticizer or non-cross- linked component.
Blushing is the whitening of the surface when a coating is applied in high humidity.
Cause: Evaporation of the solvent at surface lowers temperature and causes moisture condensation on the surface.
5. Bumps and Sinks
Bumps and sinks are high and low spots caused by unwanted flows which occur during curing after the initial leveling
Cause: Surface tension gradients during curing
Cratering is the formation of small bowl shaped depressions in a film
Cause: Gel particles, dirt, fibers, undissolved silicone, overspray, oil contamination and substrate contamination.
7. Crawling and Dewetting
Creeping back of the coating into beads, craters, islands or pinholes.
Cause: Poor wetting of the substrate.
8. Fish Eyes
Crater distinguished by a center which consists of a uniform flat painted area surrounded by a ridge.
Cause: Contamination by fluid globules, oil or silicone.
Floating is a mottled, blotchy, or streaked appearance in the paint film.
Cause: Separation or uneven distribution of different pigments in the paint.
Flooding denotes a uniform color change occuring after application.
Cause: Differential settling of the pigments.
11. Orange Peel
Orange peel is a surface bumpiness resembling the skin of an orange.
Cause: High viscosity; too thick a film; or not enough material for flow and leveling.
12. Sagging, Running or Curtaining
These all describe gravity induced flows on vertical surfaces.
Cause: Too low a viscosity or too thick a wet film.
13. Solvent Popping
Solvent pop is the formation of defects by eruption of trapped solvent after coating begins to gel.
Cause: Too fast a cure and/or too fast a solvent for conditions.
Revealing of surface features through the coating after cure.
Cause: Surface tension gradients.
15. Water Spotting
Change in appearance from water standing on the film.
Cause: Water sensitivity of the coating.
16. Poor Distinctness of Image (DOI)
Poor DOI means poor quality of reflected images from the coating surface.
Cause: Substrate roughness, too low film build, wrong solvent.
17. Dry Spray
Rough textured surface.
Cause: Too fast a solvent, low spray viscosity.
18. Die Back
Loss of gloss after application
Cause: Improper solvent evaporation.